Human evolution theory utilizing concepts of neoteny & female sexual selection
An etiology of neuropsychological disorders such as autism and dyslexia, and the origin of left handedness.

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Synthesis: bibliographical excerpts

"Tiedemann backed his claim of an actual transformation of species by appealing to the arguments of Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (1776-1837), who maintained, in the third volume (1805) of his Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur (1802-22), that the progressive deposition of fossil remains, with those of the simplest and no longer living animals at the stratigraphically lower layers, indicated an actual transformation of species in time. Treviranus himself suggested, in the spirit of Kielmeyer, that species development followed the same laws as individual development; but generally this idea of parallel evolution weighed lightly in his work. Of more significance in tipping his opinion to species transformation appears to have been his huge compilation of paleontological evidence, along with the Naturphilosophish idea of pregressive alteration.It was left to Tiedermann to join firmly the evidence for species transformation with the developmental analyses of comparative embryology. And this he did by forcefully urging that the gradation of fossil deposits paralleled the developmental stages of the individual organism:..." (Richards, RJ (1992) The Meaning of Evolution. Univ of Chicago Press: Chicago p. 45) [1808-1814 were the dates the Richards notes that Tiedemann's theories were published]

"Before Agassiz, recapitulation had been defined as a correspondence between two series: embryonic stages and adults of living species. Agassiz introduced a third series: the geologic record of fossils. An embryo repeats oth a graded series of living, lower forms and the history of its type as recorded by fossils. There is a "threefold parallelism" of embryonic growth, structural gradation, and geologic succession. 'It may therefore be considered as a general fact, very likely to be more fully illustrated as investigations cover a wider ground, that the phases of development of all living animals correspond to the order to succession of their extinct representatives in past geological times. As far as this goes, the oldest representatives of every class may then be considered as embryonic types of their respective orders of familier among the living.' (1857, 1962 ed., p. 114) (Gould, S.J. (1977) Ontegeny and Phylogeny. Cambridge: Belknap Press. p. 65-66)

"The cultural evolutionists also recognized the similarity between their concept of development and the growth of the individual toward maturity. Taylor himself saw savages as having a mentality equivalent to that of children of civilized races ((1865) 1870, 108). Frazer made the link with the recapitulation theory even more explicit: 'For by comparison with civilized man the savage represents an arrested or rather retarded stage of social development, and an examination of his customs and beliefs accordingly supplies the same sort of evidence of the evolution of the human mind that an examination of the embryo supplies of the evolution of the human body. (1913, 162)' " (Bowler, Peter J (1988) The Non-Darwinian Revolution. John Hopkins Univ. Press: Baltimore p. 136)

"Darwin's influence led to a surge of interest in children and their ways. In America, a semiformal organization, the Child Study movement, approached children with a strong recapitulationist bias (Ross, 1972). Two methods of inquiery often led to phyletic conclusions: the prolonged study of individual infants and the voluminous gatherings of statistical information by questionnaire." (Gould, S.J. (1977) Ontegeny and Phylogeny. Cambridge: Belknap Press. p. 136)

"Lombroso, in the 1887 edition of L'uomo delinquente, presents his argument in a strict phyletic mode. Part 1, on the "embryology of crime," devotes its three chapters to demonstrating that what we call crime among civilized adults is normal behavior in animals (and even plants), adult savages, and children of civilized cultures -- the threefold parallelism of classical recapitulation theory. ... The classical argument for recapitulation involves a threefold parallelism of paleontology, comparative anatomy, and ontogeny. Morphologists occasionally added a fourth source of evidence -- teratology and the phyletic explanation of abnormalities as developmental arrests (Chapter 3). This fourth criterion -- the abnormal individual as an arrested juvenile -- forms as important part of the usage made by other disciplines of the biogenetic law. We have seen how Lombroso invoked it in his theory of criminality. We will encounter it again in Freud's theory of neurosis." (Gould, S.J. (1977) Ontegeny and Phylogeny. Cambridge: Belknap Press. pp. 123-125)

"Piaget was trained as a paleontologist during the heydayof Haeckelian recapitulation (he wrote his dissertation on Jurassic gastropods from France). His pronouncements seem to have a Haeckelian ring -- though precision an clarity are not Piagetian hallmarks. It would be reasonable to assert tht Piaget studies the ontogenesis of concepts in children because, prompted by his paleoontological training in the Haeckelian mode, he believes that children provide the only access to a more interesting question with no direct answer: how, historically, did we learn to think and reason? But this assertion would be at least half wrong. Piaget believes in parallels between ontogeny and phylogeny, but he denies Haeckelian recapitulation as their mechanism. ....[quoting Piaget] "Unfortunately, we are not very well informed in the psychology of primitive man, but there are children all around us, and it is in studying children that we have the best chance of studying the development of logical knowledge, mathematical knowledge, physical knowledge, and so forth. (1969, p. 4)" (Gould, S.J. (1977) Ontegeny and Phylogeny. Cambridge: Belknap Press. p. 145

"The foregoing chapters have surveyed the three major areas of language development: development in the individual, development of new languages, and original development of language. Parsimony alone would suggest that these developmental processes might have much in common with one another, and the common pattern that emerges has an independent support that no other linguistic theory that I know of could claim: it is in accord with all we have so far learned about evolutionary processes and it is in accord with all we have so far learned about how processes in the brain determine the behavior of animate creatures." (Bickerton, D (1981) Roots of Language. Karoma Publishers: Ann Arbor. p.194)

"Another common sexual difference is that females are more fussy than males about whom they mate with. One of the reasons for fussiness by an individual of either sex is the need to avoid mating with a member of another species. Such hybridizations are a bad thing for a variety of reasons. Sometimes, as in the case of a man copulating with a sheep, the copulation does not lead to an embryo being formed, so not much is lost. When more closely related species like horses and donkeys cross-breed, however, the cost, at least to the female partner, can be considerable. An embryo mule is likely to be formed and it then clutters up her womb for eleven months. It takes a large quantity of her total parental investment, not only in the form of food absorbed through the placenta, and then later in form of milk, but above all in time which could have been spent in rearing other children. Then when the mule reaches adulthood it turns out to be sterile. This is presumably because, although horse chromosomes and donkey chromosomes are sufficiently similar to cooperate in the building of a good strong mule body, they are not similar enough to work together properly in meiosis. Whatever the exact reason, the very considerable investment by the mother in the rearing of a mule is totally wasted from the point of view of her genes. Female horses should be very, very careful that the individual they copulate with is another horse, and not a donkey. In gene terms, any horse gene that says 'Body, if you are a female, copulate with any old male, whether he is a donkey or a horse', is a gene which may next find itself in the dead-end body of a mule, and the mother's parental investment in that baby mule detracts heavily from her capacity to rear fertile horses. A male, on the other hand, has less to lose if he mates with a member of the wrong species, and, although he may have nothing to gain either, we should expect males to be less fussy in their choice of sexual partners. Where this has been looked at, it has been found to be true. Even within a species, there may be reasons for fussiness. Incestuous mating, like hybridization, is likely to have damaging genetic consequences, in this case because lethal and semi-lethal recessive genes are brought out into the open. Once again, females have more to lose than males, since their investment in any particular child tends to be greater. Where incest taboos exist, we should expect females to be more rigid in their adherence to the taboos than males. If we assume that the older partner in an incestuous relationship is relatively likely to be the active initiator, we should expect that incestuous unions in which the male is older than the female should be more common than unions inwhich the female is older. For instance father/daughter incest should be commoner than mother/son. Brother/sister incest should be intermediate in commonness." (Dawkins, R. (1989 (1976)) The Selfish Gene. Oxford Univ Press: Oxford pp. 162-163)



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