Human evolution theory utilizing concepts of neoteny & female sexual selection
An etiology of neuropsychological disorders such as autism and dyslexia, and the origin of left handedness.

twitter / andrewL9

 Library of Excerpts

Polynesian: Heterochronic Patterns

"Humans seem particularly gesticulative and expressive during courtship, and hand gestures play an important role in the dances of many cultures. (particularly in India, South-East Asia, and the Pacific Islands), so again sexual selection could have been important in the evolution of manual gesticulation. The human ability to use mouth and hands in playing musical instruments may represent a modification of motor skills originally used in courtship and foreplay." (Miller, Geoffrey F. (1994) Evolution of the human brain through runaway sexual selection: the mind as a protean courtship device. unpublished thesis. pp. 181)

"But effective clitoral stimulation, though intensely pleasurable, does not necessarily occur during sexual intercourse. Female pleasure, for more than male pleasure, is a function of erotic learning and cultural expectations. Among human societies the most advanced orgasmically are purported to be the women of Mangaia, a southern Cook Island in central Polynesia. Mangaian females reach orgasm two or three times during intercourse. Upon entering puberty at thirteen or fourteen years of age, Mangaian boys go through a series of initiation rites into adulthood. Part of the initiation includes being instructed in methods of stimulating women to maximum sexual pleasure. Indeed, Mangaian women are expected to attain orgasm during intercourse each time; if not, the Magnaian man who fails to please her loses his status in the island's society. Two weeks after a manhood initiation ritual involving penile mutilation, an experienced older women begins to practice boys in the arts of conferring female sexual pleasure. According to their ethnographer, D.S. Marshall, Mangaians probably know more about female anatomy than most European physicians. The Mangaians, with no semblance of a Puritan heritage, do not consider female sexual pleaure an indulgence. They consider it a necessity. High cultural expectations for female orgasm have led to high rates of female orgasm." (Margulis, L & Sagan, D. (1991) Mystery Dance, On the Evolution of Human Sexuality: Summit Books, New York pp. 62)

"Biederman noted the obvious number of phonemes (about 44 in English, 15 in Hawaiian) can generate every word in a language." (Corballis, M.C. (1989) Laterality and human evolution. Psychological Review 96 (3): pp. 499)

"At 3, 8, and even 16 years the girls of several New Guinea groups are taller and heavier than the boys. Whether this represents sex-confounded errors in aging is not certain, but seems very unlikely as ages in some of these groups are known from birth and baptismal records." (Eveleth, P.B. & Tanner, J.M. (1976) Worldwide Variation in Human Growth: Cambridge Univ. Press, London p. 187)

"Chinese in Hong Kong have one of the earliest recorded medians (12.5 for well-off, 12.8 for middle class and 13.3 for poor) and Japanese are relatively early (12.9). New Zealand Maori are earlier (12.7) than New Zealand Europeans (13.0), both figures being derived from a full national survey (Fig. 167). Though Africans in Africa, even those apparently well-off, are relatively late (13.4, Uganda; 14.1, Nigeria), Afro-Americans are early, averaging 12.5 (Fig.167). People largely of European-African mixture in Cuba average 13.0 over the whole island, but about 12.6 in Havana. It seems likely, therefore, that in good environmental conditions Africans may be as early-maturing in this parameter as Asiatics and southern Europeans, and earlier than the peoples of Northern and Central Europe. Girls in the Near East have a relatively late menarche, with the exception of well-off girls in Istambul who at 12.3 have the earliest median of any population studied. Even the poor in Estanbul average 13.2 years. In India the well-off average about 12.8, and the poor up to 14.5. The people with the latest menarche are the Melanesians of New Guinea, having medians ranging from 15.5 to 18.4 years (Fig. 167). Menarche is delayed by chronic undernutrition. In the poor rural area of 'Appalachia' in the southern United Stated thirty undernourished Euro-American girls followed longitudinally had a mean menarcheal age of 14.4 years against 12.4 in the well-nourished controls (Dreizen, Spirakis & Stone, 1967). They were likewise delayed in skeletal maturation and shorter in height during childhood, though they reached the height of the controls at maturity. ... In the nineteenth century menarche occured on average around 15 years in England and in Norway and Finland at nearly 17 years (Tanner, 1966c). The trend shown in Fig. 168 (a) represents about 0.3 years per decade. There is some evidence that this trend is now stopping...." (Eveleth, P.B. & Tanner, J.M. (1976) Worldwide Variation in Human Growth: Cambridge Univ. Press, London p. 213-217)

"The rate of premarital intercourse is matched by that following marriage. We inspected a section on cross-cultural intercourse frequency in a review by Ford and Beach (1951) and categorized the tribal peoples listed into three main groups. The Oceanic and Amerindian peoples tended to a lower per week average (1-4), than U.S. whites (2-4), than Africans (3-10). Recent surveys support the same conclusion. For married couples in their 20's, the average frequency per week of intercourse for the Japanese approximates 2 (Asayama, 1975), for American whites 4, and for American blacks, 5 (Fisher, 1980)." (Rushton, J.P. & Bogaert, A.F. (1987) Race differences in sexual behavior: Testing an evolutionary hypothesis. Journal Research in Personality 21(4): pp. 535)

"Bolk drew attention to the findings of Muller that the Malayans of Java have much smaller thyroid glands than do Causasoids, and that the pituitary gland is heavier is Caucasoids than in Malaysians. A similar difference exists between Chinese and Causasoids. Anatomist J. Shellshear also found that the thymus gland, situated at the front of the neck and passing into the upper part of the chest, persists among the Chinese, sometimes into old age. Shellshear regarded the persistence of the thymus as an expression of retarded development, a more general evidence of which he saw in the neotenous "childlike" appearance of the Chinese---a view which both Keith and Bolk were in full agreement. In recent years investigations of the thymus gland have revealed that it secretes a number of hormones, among them a growth-promoting substance called promine. Dr. Albert Szent-Gyorgi has shown that the thymus reaches its peak when growth of the body is fastest. In his studies on bovines, Szent-Gyorgi found that the thymus is somehow connected with youth, and that extracts injected into old animals make them behave as young ones. In this respect, he stated, promine is similar in its action to the "juvenile hormone," also known as the "Peter Pan hormone," found in insects that undergo metamorphosis into butterflies. In addition to producing a large number of lymphocytes, the thymus also produces a variety of hormones and plays an important role in the development of immunologic competence in fetus and child. There is also good evidence that maturation of fetal liver and splenic cells is dependent on an intact thymus. Removal of the thymus in newborn mice stunts their growth; thymus-derived serum (gamma globulin) injected into such animals causes them to grow faster, to maintain a higher weight average, and survive almost twice as long as thymectomized controls who have been given a neutral serum." (Montagu, Ashley (1989) Growing Young N.Y.: McGraw Hill pp. 47-8)

"Polynesians seem to value stoutness and large size in females. Males should be handsome, which seems to mean a healthy body. Both sexes should have light skin (Danielsson 1956: 69-73)" (Smith, James M. (1976) Sexual selection in recent human populations. California Anthropologist 6 (1): pp. 21)

[Trobriand Islanders] "Events and objects are self-contained points in another respect; there is a series of beings, but no becoming. There is no temporal connection between objects. The taytu always remains itself; it does not become over-ripe; over-ripeness is an ingredient of another, a differrent being. At some point, the taytu turns into a yowana, which contains over-ripeness, and the yowana, over-ripe as it is, does not put forth shoots, does not become a sprouting yowana. When sprouts appear, it ceases to be itself; in its place appears a silasata. Neither is there a temporal connection made--ir, according to our own premises, perceived--between events; in fact, temporality is meaningless. There is no tenses, no linguistic distinction between past of present. There is no arrangement of activities or events into means and ends, no causal or teleologic relationships. What we consider a casual relationship in a sequence of connected events, is to the Trobriander an ingrediant of a patterned whole. He names this ingredient u'ula. (Lee, D (1968) “Codifications of reality: Lineal and non-lineal,” in Every man in his way. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs pp. 334)



Related Links